COVID vaccine mandates by state: requirements and bans

The federal government’s COVID vaccination requirement legislation is currently on hold. However, many state and local legislators are implementing their own vaccine requirements  — and in several cases, bans and limitations. 

As of today, there are 22 states with COVID-19 vaccination requirements for certain types of employees, namely nursing home and healthcare workers. Of these state plans, some are using “vaccinate or terminate” strategies while others allow employees to partake in weekly testing. 

There are also 12 state laws that ban business owners from mandating vaccinations among employees or punish workers based on their vaccination status. 

These laws are constantly changing. We will update this article as more states implement regulations around what you can and cannot do in terms of COVID vaccination requirements. 

You can also take a look at your state labor law guide to learn more about legislation in your area. 

States with COVID-19 vaccination requirements

California

Employees of health and human services facilities must receive a vaccine. State employees, as well as those of private and public school, must be fully vaccinated or undergo weekly COVID-19 testing. 

Colorado

All state employees must receive vaccines or undergo weekly testing. Licensed healthcare employees must receive the vaccine. 

Connecticut

Long-term healthcare facility employees and childcare workers must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. Non-compliant facilities will pay a fine of $2,000 per day until they comply. 

Delaware

The following types of employees must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing: 

  • Long-term care and other healthcare facilities 
  • Public and private school educators, staff, contractors, and volunteers
  • State employees

District of Columbia

Public school and city employees must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. All healthcare workers must receive the vaccine. Employees can receive religious or medical exemptions, but they must undergo weekly testing. 

Hawaii

State and county employees, including public school employees, and state contractors must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. 

Illinois

State employees who work in congregate care facilities must be fully vaccinated. Healthcare workers, school personnel, and childcare employees must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. 

Maine

Healthcare workers, EMS personnel, and dentists must be vaccinated or be excluded from the workplace during the public health emergency. 

Maryland

State employees of congregate care facilities and nursing home or hospital workers must be vaccinated or be subject to strict mask protocols and weekly testing.  

Massachusetts

Employees of long-term care facilities, as well as state executive branch personnel, must receive the vaccine. 

Minnesota

State employees who are working in person must be fully vaccinated. 

Nevada

State employees must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. 

New Jersey 

Healthcare facility employees and state contractors must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. State employees and school personnel must receive the vaccine or undergo testing at least once or twice a week at minimum. 

New Mexico

State and school employees must provide proof of vaccination or undergo weekly testing and wear a mask while in the workplace. All hospital and congregate care employees must receive the vaccine or qualify for an exemption. 

New York

All state employees and school personnel must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. Healthcare workers must receive the vaccine. 

North Carolina

State employees must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. They must also wear a mask at the workplace. 

Oregon

State employees, healthcare workers, and school personnel must be fully vaccinated. 

Pennsylvania

State employees in healthcare congregate-care facilities must receive the vaccine or undergo weekly testing. 

Rhode Island

Healthcare facility employees must be fully vaccinated. 

Vermont

State executive branch employees must be fully vaccinated or undergo weekly testing and wear a mask at work. 

Washington

State executive branch employees, on-site contractors, volunteers, public and private healthcare workers, and workers in educational settings must be fully vaccinated. 

States that prohibit vaccination requirements

Alabama

Private businesses may not refuse to serve a customer based on their vaccination status. 

Arizona

COVID-19 vaccination requirements are prohibited. 

Arkansas

Vaccinations cannot be required as a condition of employment, except for state-owned medical facilities. 

Florida

Businesses may not require customers to provide proof of vaccination. 

Georgia

State and local governments may not require individuals to provide proof of vaccination for access to government facilities and services. 

Idaho

State and local governments may not require individuals to provide proof of vaccination for access to government facilities and services.

Michigan

Entities that receive public funding, aside from healthcare facilities, may not require vaccines as a condition of employment. 

Montana

Businesses may not refuse to provide services or goods from someone based on vaccination status. 

New Hampshire

Vaccinations may not be a condition to receive public goods or services. 

South Dakota

State employees may not be required to receive the vaccination as a condition of employment. 

Tennessee

Policies requiring COVID-19 vaccines are prohibited. Businesses can’t require customers to provide proof of vaccination. 

Utah

Businesses that require vaccinations as a condition of employment must allow workers to submit exemptions. Employers must pay for COVID-19 tests. 

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