Navigating the financial side of running a small business can often feel complex and overwhelming. As an owner, you know you have to wear many hats, but without the luxury of a dedicated accounting team, you may feel you lack the expertise (and time) to create your company balance sheet each month.
A balance sheet is a fundamental tool that provides a snapshot of the company’s financial position at a specific moment, offering insights into assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity.
In this article, we’ll demystify its complexity and walk you through the process of creating your own. And if you still don’t want to create the sheet itself, we’ve even got you covered with a free template. When it comes to balancing your books, it doesn’t come any easier than this (short of having a dedicated accountant to do it for you).
How to create your own balance sheet in 4 easy steps
While it may seem complex, knowing how to create a balance sheet is not just a requirement for keeping the books straight: it’s a way to get a comprehensive view of financial health. This is vital to informed decision-making and understanding your assets and liabilities as part of a sound cash-flow management strategy.
This guide aims to simplify the process into six straightforward, actionable steps you can follow right away.
Step 1: Pick a date and list your assets
The first step in creating a balance sheet is picking the date you are taking a snapshot of. This is often the last day of a given month or quarter.
Once you know the date you are taking a snapshot of, list all your assets into line items. You’ll need to include current assets and long-term assets. It’s not essential, but many like to organize these from the most liquid at the top, working down to the least liquid at the bottom.
Current assets include things that can be quickly converted into cash when needed, for example:
- Cash and cash equivalents – including cash, checks, and money in your bank account
- Accounts receivable – money owed by clients you will receive in the future
- Marketable securities – traded investments that you can sell easily
- Prepaid expenses – things you’ve already paid for (like rent)
- Inventory – finished products as well as raw materials
Long-term assets, also called non-liquid, are those which can’t be converted into cash easily, for instance:
- Fixed assets – property and machinery
- Intangible assets – patents, copyrights, licenses, and franchise agreements
- Long-term securities – investments that can’t be sold off within a year, like bonds or real estate
Once you’ve listed all your assets – both current (including cash) and long-term – then you need to add them all together. The final tally is your total assets.
Step 2: List all liabilities
When you have your total assets, it’s time to take stock of your liabilities. These are the debts and obligations you owe.
Just like assets, liabilities are categorized into current and long-term liabilities. Current liabilities are short-term debts due within a year, while long-term liabilities are debts due in more than one year.
- Current liabilities – utilities, taxes, rent, accounts payable, and payments toward long-term debt interest
- Long-term liabilities – bonds payable and long-term debts
Once you’ve listed these, as with assets, you need to add them together to find out your total liabilities.
Step 3: Calculate owners’ equity
Owners’ equity represents the value that would be returned to the business owners if all assets were liquidated and all debts were paid off. This can be calculated using the formula:
Owners’ Equity = Total Assets – Total Liabilities
The result is your Owner’s Equity total.
Step 4: Double-check and reconcile
The final equation – the balance – is very simple:
Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder’s equity
If you’ve done everything correctly, this should “balance” out, meaning the assets should equal the liabilities plus the owners’ equity.
There you have it.
Take control of your financial health
Creating a balance sheet may seem like a daunting task, especially for small business owners without an accounting background. However, it’s an essential part of managing your business finances. Follow these four easy steps and download our free template to make it even easier.
By keeping track of your business finances – whether monthly or quarterly – you’ll put yourself in the best position to make smart business decisions, be prepared for loan and investment applications, and ensure better cash flow management.
Frequently asked questions about balance sheets
What are the basic components of a balance sheet?
A basic balance sheet should include three main components:
- Assets: both current and noncurrent
- Liabilities: current and long-term liabilities
- Owners’ Equity: representing the net value of the business
Boiled down to its simplest form, a balance sheet is just about listing those three things, totaling them up, and then making sure your liabilities and owner’s equity are equal to your assets.
What is the difference between a balance sheet and an income statement?
A balance sheet provides a snapshot of a business’s financial position at a specific point in time, showing assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity. An income statement, on the other hand, shows the revenues, expenses, and profits or losses over a specific period, usually a fiscal quarter or year.
When would I need to analyze a balance sheet?
Analyzing a balance sheet can be necessary for various reasons, such as:
- Understanding the financial health of the business
- Preparing for a loan application
- Conducting yearly audits
- Creating a strategy for future investments